Culture Shock, Learning Shock and Re-entry Shock - Dr Michael Davidson, University of Nottingham

This paper outlines the thinking of several anthropologists, business consultants and educators all concerned with the effects of individuals interacting with others in learning contexts, within cultures perceived to be foreign, over a sustained period of time. Culture shock concerns not only 'off shore', but also 'on shore' international students and staff. The literature discerns several stages of culture shock, and its converse, reverse or re-entry culture shock.  The paper considers how acculturation is likely to proceed, depending on the extent to which links with the originating culture are maintained, and how important links with new groups are perceived to be.  The role of 'identity' in the acculturation process is also considered.

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